Tree Regeneration and Vegetation Structure in High Altitudes of Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

Orus Ilyas


The present paper is unique because of the use of modern statistical techniques to assess the species composition,distribution, and regeneration pattern at high altitude Himalayas. Threats to the forest community were alsoassessed at different survey sites. Stratified random sampling was carried out at 13 high altitude sites ofUttarakhand, from east to west at altitudinal range from 2500m to 4000m a.s.l., irrespective of protected areas.The tree species density was found maximum at Saukherk (665.5±192.3) followed by Mulakherk (586.2+367.7).A total of 16 regenerating tree species were recorded from 13 surveyed sites. The densities of regeneration treespecies were low at all the surveyed sites especially towards the glacier; however, saplings were recorded maximumat Hitoli (5176.2±3690.4). PCA was performed to understand the patterns of relationship among various surveyedsites at the landscape level. The tree cover, density, diversity, and richness play a powerful role in discriminatingthe sites at PC I while the second PC is a gradient of grass and disturbances. The high altitude Himalayas havethe anthropoegenic pressure due to tree cutting, lopping, cattle grazing etc. The mean tree cutting, lopping, cattledung, grazing, and impact of the fire were assessed at different surveyed sites and threat scores were calculated.The Saukherk, Dungiadong are the least threatened sites while the Liwari, Mulakherk and Hitoli are the mostthreatened sites.


Vegetation composition, tree species regeneration, Principal Component Analysis


Bhat, J.A., Kumar, M., Negi, A.K., Todaria, N. P., Malik, Z. A., Pala, N. A., Kumar, A. and Shukla, G. 2020. Species diversity of woody vegetation along altitudinal gradient of the western Himalayas. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24, e01302.

Dobhal, P.K., Kohli, R.K. and Batish, D.R. 2011. Impact of Lantana camara L. invasion on riparian vegetation of Nayar region in Garhwal Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India). Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environments, 3, 11-22.

Ilyas, O. and Khan, J.A. 2005. Assessment of tree mortality and post-fire regeneration pattern in Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kumaon Himalaya, India. Tropical Ecology, 46, 157-163.

Kumar, M., Kumar, S. and Sheikh, M.A. 2010. Effects of altitude on soil and vegetation characterstics of Pinus roxburghii forest in Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Advanced Labboratory Research in Biology, 1, 130-133.

Kharkwal, G. and Rawat, Y.S. 2010. Structure and composition of vegetation in subtropical forest of Kumaun Himalaya. African journal of Plant Science, 4, 116-121.

Mishra, N.B. and Chaudhuri, G. 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis of trends in seasonal vegetation productivity across Uttarakhand, India. Applied Geography, 56, 29-41.

Malik, Z.A., Pandey, R. and Bhatt, A.B. 2016. Anthropogenic disturbance and their impact on vegetation in Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science, 13, 69-82.

Norusis, M. J. 1990. SPSS/PC +4.0 Base Manual - Statistical Data Analysis SPSS Inc.

Pokhriyal, P. Chauhan, D.S. and Todaria, N.P. 2012. Effect of altitude and disturbance on structure and species diversity of forest vegetation in a watershed of Central Himalaya. Tropical Ecology, 53, 307-315.

Pandey, J. and Lodhiyal, L.S. 2015. Vegetation structure and regeneration of Van Panchayat forests in Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand. International journal of Environment, 4, 69-80.

Raina, A.K. and Gupta, M.K. 2009. Soil and vegetation studies in relation to parent material of Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand (India). Annals of Forestry, 17, 71-82.

Saxena, A.K. and Singh, J.S. 1982. A phytosociological analysis of woody plant species in forest communities of a part of Kumaon Himalaya. Vegetatio, 50, 3-22.

Singh, H., Husain, T. and Agnihotri, P. 2010. Haat Kali sacred grove, Central Himalaya, Uttarakhand. Current Science, 98, 290.

Singh, V., Chauhan, D.S. and Dasgupta, S. 2015. Vegetation status and plant diversity of Chandrabadani Oak forest along anthropogenic disturbance gradient in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Journal o f Global Agriculture and Ecology, 3, 26-37.

Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentic-Hall, N.J. 718 pp.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.