Ethology and Nesting Behavior of Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) in Faridpur Tehsil Under Bareilly District of Uttar Pradesh

Virat Singh Tomar, Sandeep Chouksey


Sarus crane is one of the most impressive birds on earth and an indicator of healthy agricultural land and wetland. This study between August 2011 to July 2012 was to examine the Sarus crane ethology and nesting behavior during breeding season in Faridpur tehsil under Bareilly District of Uttar Pradesh. The survey method consisted with the collection of data from primary and secondary resources. During the study, a total 11 nests was encountered in 10 selected villages. Study showed that in every village Sarus crane was present in a pair. During the nesting time they become territorial. All nests were located in the marshland and agricultural land with the different variety of plant species. The nests size varied with height and width. The mean nest diameter was recorded to be 166.16±1.04 cm whereas mean nest height was 30.5±0.68 cm. The mean diameter of nesting area in paddy field was 159±1.35 cm.


Ethology; Nesting Material; Courtship; Breeding


Ali, S. and Ripley S.D. 1983. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (Compact edition). Oxford University Press, Bombay. 816 pages.

Ansari, Nasim Ahmad. 2015. Population composition and distribution of Indian Sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone) in Gautam Budh Nagar district, with special reference to Surajpur wetland, National Capital Region, India. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 5(3): 41-46.

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behavior 49(3): 35-40.

Aryal, A., Shrestha, T.K., Sen, D.S., Upreti, B., and Gautam, N. 2009. Conservation regime and local population ecology of Sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone) in west-central region of Nepal. Journal of Wetlands Ecology 3: 1-11.

BirdLife International. 2012. "antigone antigone". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.

Birding in India and Indian Subcontinent.

Borad, C.K., Mukherjee, A. and Parasharya, B.M. 2001. Nest site selection by the Indian Sarus crane in the paddy crop agroecosystem. Biological Conservation 98: 89-96.

Citta J. J. and Lindberg M.S. 2007. Nest-site selection of passerines: effects of geographic scale and public and personal information. Ecology 88(8): 2034-2046.

Cnossen, Christine. 1997. Secondary Research: Learning Paper 7, School of Public Administration and Law, the Robert Gordon University, January 1997. Available online (telnet):

Cody, M.L. 1985. An introduction to habitat selection in birds. Pages 4-46, In: Cody, M.L. (Editor). Habitat Selection in Birds. Academic Press, Tokyo.

International Crane Foundation. 2017. Species field guide.

Jha, K.K. 2013. Save UP wetlands to save flagship species sarus and in turn wetland biodiversity under the umbrella. Pages 17-29, In: Water and Biodiversity. Uttar Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Lucknow.

Mukherjee, A. 2000. Ecology of the India Sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone) Linnaeus. Ph.D. Dissertation, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat. India.

Mukherjee, A.; Soni, V.C.; Borad, C.K. and Parasharya, B.M. 2000. Nest and eggs of Sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone Linn.). Zoos' Print Journal 15: 375–385.

Mukherjee, A.; Borad, C.K. and Parasharya, B.M. 2002. Breeding performance of Indian Sarus Crane in the agricultural landscape of western India. Biological Conservation 105: 263-269.

Parasharya, B.M.; Mathew, K.L. and Yadav, D.N. 1989. Status and habitat preference of Sarus crane in Gujarat, India. Paper presented to the Asian crane Congress at Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. 1994. Statistical Methods. 7th edition. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi. 503pages.

Singh, R. and Sharma, A.K. 2011. Statistical Methods and Experi-mental Designs. 1st edition. Aman Publishing House, Meerut.

Shell, L.W. (1997. Secondary Data Sources: Library Search Engines, Nicholls State University.

Sundar, K.S.G. 2009. Are rice paddies suboptimal breeding habitats for Sarus cranes in Uttar Pradesh, India? The Condor 111 (4): 611–623.

Yaseen, M.; Saxena, R. and Dubey, S. 2013. Population composition, distribution and habitat preference of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 3(4): 2784-2792.

Walkinshaw, L.H. 1973. Cranes of the World. Winchester Press, New York. 370 pages.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.