Pollination Biology and Breeding Systems of Calophyllum apetalum Willd. from Western Ghats of Karnataka

C.N. Prasanna Kumar, R. K. Somashekar, B. C. Nagaraja, D. Shivaprasad


Flower morphology, anthesis, pollen production, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity, and foraging nature of floral visitors of Calophyllum apetalum Willd. (family Clusiaceae) have been studied across the sites of Western Ghats of India. The flowers are bisexual, relatively small with numerous stamens, open in early and late morning, pollinated by both anemophily and entomophily that helps effective pollination and  results in successful fruit set. The highest and lowest mean fruit set were observed with manual hand cross (94.8±8.93%) and open pollination (73.2±14.16%) respectively. The manual cross and self-pollinations are significantly different (a=0.05, p 0.01) indicating the importance of naturally mediated cross pollination by pollinators. The high index of self-incompatibility (>0.25) specifies that the species is self-compatible. Emasculation followed by bagging did not yield any fruit set thereby showing the absence of apomixis.


Phenology; Pollination; Breeding Systems; Western Ghats.


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