Characterization of Soil Nutrients Leaching in Perched Groundwater as Occurring in Bush Fallow of Forest Zone

Brahima Kone, Bognompke Jean Pierre, Cherif Mamadou, Sylvester Oikeh, Konan Firmin, Traoré M. Joachim


Geochemical changes can occur in soils exposed to high annual rainfall, even in non cultivated soil of bush fallow as consequence of leaching. Missing data of leached N, P, K and Mg could have lead to erroneous fertilizer practice inducing declining of the crop yields. During the cropping seasons (June, July and August) of 2003 and 2004, 25 mi-piezometers were set (9600 m2) in soil systematically (20  ×  30 m) for perched groundwater collection before laboratory analysis of  N-NO3, N-NH4, P2O4, K, Mg and HCO3. Soil profiles of middle slope (MS), foot slope (FS) and fringe valley (FV) were also sampled by horizon for physic-chemical analysis (particle size, bulk density, C-organic, total-N, exchangeable K and Mg as well as the pHwater). Leached concentrations were in decreasing order as HCO3 > N-NO3 > K and Mg > N-NH4 > P2O4 and the pH values were higher than 5.5. Although N-NO3 and P2O4 were found to be the main accompanying anions of leached N-NH4, K and Mg, there was specific anisotropy in leached leaching. Furthermore, the concentrations of N-NO3 (K and Mg) and P2O4 (N-NH4 and K) in groundwater could be used for the estimation of that of the cations whereas, only Mg concentration could be described by that of HCO3. Compared with their contents in soil respectively, unavailability of P and Mg was not much concerned by leaching as for total-N and K. We suggested 0.87 g K ha-1 and 0.45 gN ha-1 for 1kg of soil as additional fertilizer practice for sustaining crop production in forest ecosystems.


Leaching; Soil Nutrient; Nitrogen; Potassium; Ferralsols; Forest


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