Evaluation of CENTURY Model for Soil Organic Carbon Assessment at Different Cropping Patterns in Semi-Arid Subtropical India

Naorem J. Singh, M. Kudrat, K. Jain


The CENTURY model was evaluated for its ability to simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) changes at different cropping patterns of Uttar Pradesh. A long-term fertilizer trial on rice–wheat system at Ludhiana, Punjab was used for the necessary parameters needed to run Century. This trial was conducted at semi-arid subtropical (mean annual rainfall 800 mm, mean temperature 6.7-35°C) with different treatment combinations. The modeling efficiency (ME) of this trail was 0.87, 0.93 and 0.97 for the treatments wheat straw (WS)+Urea-N (amount of added NPK: 176, 3.3, 61 kg ha-1) (T4), WS+ green manure (GM)+Urea-N (amount of added NPK: 176, 3.3, 61 kg ha-1) (T5) and farm yard manure (FYM)+GM (amount of added NPK: 186, 35, 81 kg ha-1) (T7) respectively and r2 for all treatments was more than 0.9. The SOC storage at different cropping systems was found in the following order: rice-wheat> sugarcane- wheat > maize-wheat > jowar-pulses/ oilseed. The anaerobic part of rice-wheat system and minimum tillage practices under sugarcane- wheat system might enhance the SOC storage at the similar agro-climatic condition.


Biomass; Century Model; Rice-wheat; Long Term Experiment; Minimum Tillage Practices


Amos, B. and Walters, D.T. 2006. Maize root biomass and net rhizodeposited carbon: an analysis of the literature. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70: 1489-1503.

Anonymous, 2005. Land Use Statistics. Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.

Anonymous, 2006. CHN analyzer (model Foss Heraeus Elemental Analyzer CHN-O-RAPID, Manufacture Elementar Analysen System GmBH, Donaustrasse 7, D-63452 Hanau, Germany.

Batjes, N.H. 1996. Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the World. European Journal of Soil Science 47: 151-163.

Benbi, D.K. and Brar, J.S. 2009. A 25 year record of carbon sequestration and soil properties in intensive agriculture. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29: 257-265.

Bhattacharyya, T.; Pal, D.K.; Easter, M.; Batjes, N.H.; Milne, E.; Gajbhiye, K.S.; Chandran, P.; Ray, S.K.; Mandal, C.; Paustian, K.; Williams, S.; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Falloon, P. and Powlson, D.S. 2007. Modelled soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India from 1980 to 2030. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122: 84–94.

Bhattacharyyaa, T.; Pal, D.K.; Williams, S; Telpande, B.A.; Deshmukha, A.S.; Chandrana, P.; Ray, S.K.; Mandal, C.; Easter, M. and Paustian, K. 2010. Evaluating the Century C model using two long-term fertilizer trials representing humid and semi-arid sites from India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139: 264–272.

Blake, G.R. and Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk density. Pages 1–173, In: A. Klute (Editor) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. (2nd. edition). Agronomy Monographs 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society America, Madison, WI.

Chan,K.Y.; Bowman, A. and Oates, A. 2001. Oxidizable organic carbon fractions and soil quality changes in an oxi paleustalf under different pasture leys. Soil Science 166 (1): 61-67.

Foereid, B.; Barthram, G.T. and Marriott, C.A. 2007. The CENTURY model failed to simulate soil organic matter development in acidic grassland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 78:143-153.

Gee, G.W. and Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle size analysis. Pages 1-1173, In: A. Klute (Editor) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1 (2nd edition.). Agronomy Monographs 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society America, Madison, WI.

Houghton, R. A.; Skole, D. L.; Nobre, C. A.; Hackler, J. L.; Lawrence, K. T. and Chomentowski, W. H. 2000. Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature 403: 301–304.

Jackson, M.L. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi. 452 pages.

Keeny, E.A.; Hall, J.W. and Wang, C. 2002. Temporal trends in soil properties at a soil quality benchmark site in the lower Fraser valley, British Colombia. Canadian Journal Soil Science 82: 499–509.

Lal, R. and Sanchez, P.A. 1992. Myths and Science of Soils in the Tropics. SSSA Special Publication No. 29. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, USA, Pp. 1-157.

Manna, M.C.; Swarup, A.; Wanjari, R.H.; Singh, Y.V.; Ghosh, P.K.; Singh, K.N.; Tripathi, A.K. and Saha, M.N. 2006. Soil organic matter in a West Bengal Inceptisol after 30 years of multiple cropping and fertilization. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:121–129.

Murty, D.; Krischbaum, M.U.F.; MxMurtie, R.E. and McGilvray, H. 2002. Does conversion of forest to agriculture land change soil carbon and nitrogen? A review of the literature. Global Change Biology 8:105–123.

Parton, W.J. 1996. The CENTURY model. Pages 283–293, In: Powlson, D.S.; Smith, P. and Smith, J.U. (Editors.), Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models Using Existing Long-term Datasets. NATO ASI Series I, vol. 38. Springer- Verlag, Heidelberg.

Parton, W.J.; Schimel, D.S.; Cole, C.V. and Ojima, D.S. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5):1173–1179

Parton, W.J.; Schimel, D.S.; Ojima, D.S. and Cole, C.V. 1994. A general model for soil organic matter dynamics: sensitivity to litter chemistry, texture and management. Pages 147–167, In: Bryant, R.B. and Arnold, R.W. (Editors.) Quantitative Modelling of Soil Farming Processes. SSSA Special Publication 39, ASA, CSSA and SSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Parton,W.J., Rasmussen, P.E., 1994. Long-term effects of crop management in wheat/fallow: II CENTURY model simulation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 530–536.

Poussart, J.N.; Ardö, J. and Olsson, L. 2004. Effects of data uncertainties on soil organic carbon in the Sudan. Environmental Management 33: S405–S415.

Powlson, D.S. 2005. Will soil amplify climate change? Nature: 204–205.

Powlson, D.S. and Olk, D.C. 2000. Long-term soil organic matter dynamics. Pages 49-63, In: Kirk, G.J.D. and Olk, D.C. (Editors) Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Flooded Soils, Proceedings of the Workshop on Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Flooded Soils. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos.

Pretty, J.N.; Ball, A.S.; Li, X.Y. and Ravindranath, N.H. 2002. The role of sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource management in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing sinks in China and India. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 360: 1741–1761.

Pretty, J; Noble, A.D.; Bossio, D.; Dixon, J.; Hine, R.E.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T. and Morison, J.I.L. 2006. Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries. Environ-mental Science and Technology 40 (4): 1114–1119.

Reddy, K.S.; Singh, M.; Tripathi, A.K.; Singh, M. and Saha, M.N. 2003. Changes in amount of organic and inorganic fractions of nitrogen in an Eutrochrept soil after long-term cropping with different fertilizer and organic manure inputs. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 166: 232–238.

Singh, N.J.; Kudrat, M.; Jain, K. and Pandey, K. 2011. Cropping pattern of Uttar Pradesh using IRS-P6 (AWiFS) data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 32: 4511-4526.

Singh, S.P.; Ram, J.; Walia, C.S.; Sachdev, C.B.; Dhankar, R.P.; Rana, K.P.C.; Sehgal, J.; Velayutham, M. and Gajbhiye, K.S. 2004. Soils of Uttar Pradesh for optimizing land use. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) Publication 68, Nagpur, India. 91 pages.

Vereecken, H.; Jansen, E.J.; Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.; Swerts, M.; Engelke, R.; Fabrewitz, S. and Hansen, S. 1991. Comparision of simulation results of five nitrogen models using different datasets. Commission of European Communities Soil and Groundwater Research. Report II, Nitrate in soils. Luxenbourg: Commission of the European Communities: 321-338.

West, T.O. and Post, W.M. 2002. Soil Organic Carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: A global data analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1930-1946.

Yadvinder-Singh; Bijay-Singh; Ladha, J.K.; Khind, C.S.; Gupta, R.K.; Meelu, O.P. and Pasuquin, E. 2004. Long-term effects of organic inputs on yield and soil fertility in the rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 845-853.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.